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Friday, November 6, 2020 | History

2 edition of Neural coding of high-frequency tones found in the catalog.

Neural coding of high-frequency tones

Walton L. Howes

Neural coding of high-frequency tones

  • 204 Want to read
  • 4 Currently reading

Published by U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in Washington, Springfield, Va .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Auditory perception.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementWalton L. Howes ; Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
    SeriesNASA technical memorandum ; NASA TM X-3374, NASA technical memorandum -- X-3374.
    ContributionsUnited States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration., Lewis Research Center.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination[1], 7 p. :
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17814984M


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Neural coding of high-frequency tones by Walton L. Howes Download PDF EPUB FB2

Frequency coding in the nervous system: Threshold stimulus. If a threshold stimulus is applied to a neuron and maintained (top, red trace), action potentials occur at a maximum frequency that is limited by the sum of the absolute and relative refractory periods (bottom, blue trace).

The response of fibres of Neural coding of high-frequency tones book auditory nerve and neurons of the inferior colliculus of the cat to harmonic two-tone complexes was studied. The compone Cited by: 3. Sound frequency-invariant neural coding of a frequency-dependent cue to sound source location.

Localization of high-frequency tones. J Acoust Soc Am –, Finlayson PG, Caspary DM. Low-frequency neurons in the lateral superior olive exhibit phase-sensitive binaural by:   Understanding how populations of neurons encode information is the challenge faced by researchers in the field of neural coding.

Focusing on the many mysteries and marvels of the mind has prompted a prominent team of experts in the field to put their heads together and fire up a book on the subject. Simply titled Principles of Neural Coding, this bCited by: THE NEURAL CODE OF PITCH AND HARMONY CONTENTS 1 Historical aspects of harmony 2 Sound and periodicity Periodicity, pitch, and speech 3 The discovery of the.

Jun Neural Coding and Perception of Sound 13 Phase Locking • In response to low-frequency (tones, spike discharges tend to occur at a particular phase within the stimulus cycle.

However, spikes do not always occur on every cycle, i.e. there can be 2. (B) Neural source locations for the M50 STRF and M STRF in each hemisphere, as estimated by dipole fitting. The location of the neural source of the M50 STRF is anterior and medial to that of the M STRF and M The source location for each subject is aligned based on the source of the M response to tone pips, shown by the cross.

• Attack of tones - buildup of sound at the beginning of a tone • Decay of tones - decrease in sound at end of tone Guitar Guitar backwards 0 1 0 Time (seconds) 1 0 Time (seconds). The neuronal encoding of sound is the representation of auditory sensation and perception in the nervous system.

This article explores the basic physiological principles of sound perception, and traces hearing mechanisms from sound as pressure waves in air to the transduction of these waves into electrical impulses (action potentials) along auditory nerve fibers, and further processing in the.

information processing. Two basic principles are pointed out, rate coding and temporal coding. Section of this thesis deals with spike train analysis and the signal processing in neural system.

Parallel to these investigations some partly very complex computer mod-els have been developed. The aim is to proof theories and to get informations. Auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) convey acoustic information from the sensory cells to the brainstem using an elaborated neural code based on both spike timing and rate.

As the stimulus tone frequency increases, time coding fades and ceases, resulting in high-frequency tone encoding that relies mostly on.

• In response to low-frequency (tones, spike discharges Neural coding of high-frequency tones book to occur at a particular phase within the stimulus cycle. However, spikes do not always occur on every cycle, i.e. there can be 2, 3, or more cycles between consecutive spikes.

• Phase locking best seen with frequencies below 5 kHz. The carrier frequency of the pure tone was either Hz (low-tone frequency) or Hz (high-tone frequency; 39 semitones higher than the low-tone frequency).

These two frequencies were chosen to fall within spectral bands where rhythmic fluctuations either correlate (– Hz) or do not correlate (– Hz) with sensory-motor. Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.

Based on the theory that sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode. Pitch of pure and complex tones.

Virtual pitch. Place and temporal models of pitch. Role of pitch in auditory scene analysis. AJO: Lec Neural Processing of Pitch.

Rate and temporal codes. Temporal envelope and fine structure. Interspike interval representation of pitch. Tuning to modulation frequency and its possible role in pitch coding.

The neural mechanisms of sound localization are of particular interest since the location of a stimulus is not represented in the sensory epithelium, as it is in the visual or somatosensory systems, but must be computed by combining input from the two ears in the central auditory system.

Coding of AM tones in the chinchilla auditory nerve. ARHL, or presbycusis, is characterised by gradually developing high-frequency hearing loss, often accompanied by poor speech discrimination, and may begin to surface in the fourth decade of life [].The prevalence of ARHL increases with age, affecting >40% of people over 50 years old, rising to ~71% of people over 70 years [].For most people this is a relatively unremarkable part of the ageing.

Drawings of Golgi-impregnated axons/neurons in coronal sections through the superior olivary complex of the cat.

Modified, with permission, from Figures, and of Ramon y Cajal S, information than rate code • Information measured in bits, the number of binary choices that must be made to completely specify the code • For 5 time bins: •Rate code: log 2(6)= bits •Temporal code: 5 bits Figure from: Rieke, F., D.

Warland, de Ruyter van Steveninck R., and W. Bialek. “Spikes.” In Exploring the Neural Code. The neural coding of spectrotemporal modulations in natural soundtracks has been studied invasively in human auditory cortex using intracranial extracellular recordings (Bitterman et al.

), where the spectrotemporal tuning of individual neurons was found to be generally complex and sometimes very fine in frequency.

Standard pitch is a more widely accepted convention. The A above middle C is usually set at Hz (often written as "A = Hz" or sometimes "A"), although other frequencies, such as Hz, are also often used as r standard pitch, the so-called Baroque pitch, has been set in the 20th century as A = Hz—approximately an equal-tempered semitone lower than A to.

Carlyon and Moore () suggested that, in some circumstances, intensity might be coded by the pattern of phase locking in auditory nerve fibers. Increasing the intensity of a pure tone in the presence of a noise can produce an increase in the synchronization to the fine structure of the pure tone, away from the fine structure of the noise, even though the overall firing rate of the fiber.

Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code is a pleasure. It deals with a fundamental issue in neuroscience―how information about the world is represented in sensory spike trains―how information about the world is represented in sensory spike trains―and does so with clarity for the neuroscientist and rigor for the computational s:   The variation of pitch in speech not only creates the intonation for affective communication but also signals different meaning of a word in tonal languages, like Chinese.

Due to its subtle and brisk pitch contour distinction between tone categories, the underlying neural processing mechanism is largely unknown.

Using direct recordings of the human brain, we found categorical neural. The temporal discharge patterns of auditory nerve fibers in Dial-anesthetized cats were studied in response to periodic complex acoustic waveforms that evoke pitches at their fundamental frequencies.

Single-formant vowels, amplitude-modulated (AM) and quasi-frequency-modulated tones. AM noise, click trains, and other complex tones were utilized. S.H. Scott, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Neural Coding in Premotor Cortex.

Neural coding in dorsal and ventral premotor cortex appears to be far less complex with regard to the range of variables expressed in the discharge of individual neurons. Spatial goals and the direction of movement are well represented at the single cell level, with less influence by parameters related to the.

Tone language experience has been associated with more accurate and stronger phase locking of neural responses in the brainstem to auditory stimuli. However, whether this neurophysiological advantage translates to better pitch perception remains under debate. Previous studies have yielded controversial results, possibly due to variations in methods and large individual.

Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a widely used trapping technique to manipulate microscopic particles or cells. Recently, the characterization of a single cancer cell using high-frequency (>30 MHz) SBAT has been reported to determine its invasiveness and metastatic potential.

Investigation of cell elasticity and invasiveness is based on the deformability of cells under SBAT’s. The question of how pitch is perceived and coded in the auditory system has been a matter of scientific debate for well over a century (3 –5).Currently, the neural coding of pitch is widely believed to rely on the precise timing of action potentials, or spikes, within the auditory nerve (6, 7).At low frequencies, spikes tend to occur at a certain phase within each cycle of a pure tone.

Zuk N, Delgutte B. Neural coding of time-varying interaural time differences and time-varying amplitude in the inferior colliculus. J Neurophysiol. 07 01; (1) PMID: In addition to decreasing the resiliency of neural coding in background noise, sensorineural hearing loss also alters the temporal dynamics of auditory-nerve fiber responses to pure tones.

Auditory-nerve fiber responses in normal-hearing animals show a rapid increase in spike rate shortly after the onset of the tone followed by gradual. Let's move on to talk about the neural code itself.

Let's start out discussion with some example experimental data which we'll take from a very important part of the brain, the retina. Your eyes are an outlying but very vital part of your brain. The retina is a sheet of cells at the back of your eyeball that take light that's focused through.

Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry ( Hz–8 kHz).

Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those. The neural coding of interaural envelope timing information was measured in recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus of the unanesthetized rabbit.

Binaural beat stimuli with a 1-Hz difference in modulation frequency were presented at the best modulation frequency and intensity as the carrier frequencies at each ear were varied.

Financial Trading Model with Stock Bar Chart Image Time Series with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks: arXiv: Omer Berat Sezer: 4: Trend: TODO: CNN: OHLCV: Forecasting stock prices from the limit order book using convolutional neural networks: IEEE: Avraam Tsantekidis: Trend: TODO: CNN: LOB.

Yes. Hearing aid manufacturers continue to make improvements by developing hearing aids that are more effective for all types of hearing loss, including high-frequency hearing loss. The advent of digital technology in the mids resulted in significant hearing aid improvements.

Unified cochlear model for low- and high-frequency mammalian hearing Aritra Sasmal, Karl Grosh Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul(28) ; DOI: /pnas Auditory masking experiments concerning the ability to hear a high-frequency tone (as that from a piccolo) and a low-frequency tone (as that from a bassoon) at the same time have shown that a low-frequency tone masks a high-frequency tone more effectively than the reverse.

This means that a tone with a frequency of hertz produces nerve impulses per second. It is the speed in which the neural signals move along the brain that determine the pitch. Structure of. Start studying PSY Chapter 5. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Responses of low characteristic-frequency (CF) neurons in the inferior colliculus were obtained to amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency tones in which the modulation rate was equal to the neuron.Volley theory states that groups of neurons of the auditory system respond to a sound by firing action potentials slightly out of phase with one another so that when combined, a greater frequency of sound can be encoded and sent to the brain to be analyzed.

The theory was proposed by Ernest Wever and Charles Bray in as a supplement to the frequency theory of hearing.Figure 6: High-frequency spike via an FFT. An RNN specifically trained to identify the time-series correlation of a particular tone or audio sequence is a straightforward application.